peer reviewed, international articles

Steen, M., van Diggelen, J., Timan, T., & van der Stap, N. (2023). Meaningful human control of drones: exploring human–machine teaming, informed by four different ethical perspectives. AI and Ethics, 3(1), 281-293.

Steen, M., van Diggelen, J., & Timan, T. (2022). Bringing ideas from cybernetics to current challenges in AI. In The first International Conference on Hybrid Human-Artificial Intelligence (HHAI 2022), 13-17 June, Amsterdam.

Georgieva, I., Lazo, C., Timan, T., & van Veenstra, A. F. (2022). From AI ethics principles to data science practice: a reflection and a gap analysis based on recent frameworks and practical experience. AI and Ethics, 1-15. DOI:

Steen, M., van der Poel, I & Timan, T. (2021). ‘Responsible Innovation, Anticipation and Responsiveness: Case studies of Algorithms in Decision Support in Justice and Security, and an Exploration of Potential, Unintended, Undesirable, Higher-order Effects’. AI and Ethics. DOI:

Timan, T. & Dalibert, L. (2021). « Un simple outil de surveillance ? Biographie d’une caméra portée sur le corps par la police aux Pays-Bas » Technologie et Innovation, numéro spécial sur les biographies d’innovation comme vecteur de développement de la culture technique. DOI : 10.21494/ISTE.OP.2020.0483

van Dongen, L & Timan, T (2017). Your Smart Coffee Machine Knows What You Did Last Summer: A Legal Analysis of the Limitations of Traditional Privacy of the Home under Dutch Law in the Era of Smart Technology. Scripted journal, Issue 14:2: 208-238. 

Koops, B. J., Newell, B. C., Timan, T., Skorvanek, I., Chokrevski, T., & Galic, M. (2016). A typology of privacy. U. Pa. J. Int’l L.38, 483. Available at

Timan, Tjerk (2016). The Body-worn Camera as a Transitional Technology. Surveillance & Society 14(1): 145-149. DOI:

Galič, Timan and Koops (2016). Bentham, Foucault and beyond: An overview of surveillance theories from Panopticon to participation. Philosophy & Technology. Volume 30, pp. 9-37. DOI:

Timan, T. & Albrechtslund, A. (2015). Surveillance, Self and Smartphones: Tracking Practices in the Nightlife. Science and Engineering Ethics. Springer. DOI 10.1007/s11948-015-9691-8

Timan, T. (2013). Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes A STS-Informed Perspective. TECNOSCIENZA. Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies 4 (2) pp. 92-124 

Timan, T. & Oudshoorn, N.E.J. (2012).Mobile Cameras as New Technologies of Surveillance? How Citizens Experience the Use of Mobile Cameras in Public Nightscapes. Surveillance & Society 10 (2), pp 167–181

Schwanen, T., van Aalst, I., Brands, J., & Timan, T. (2012). Rhythms of the night: spatiotemporal inequalities in the nighttime economy. Environment and Planning A, 44(9), 2064–2085. DOI:10.1068/a44494


Privacy in Public Space. Conceptual and regulatory challenges (Timan, Newell, Koops eds). Edward Elgar Publishers, 2017

SurveillancePrivacy and Public Space (Bryce Clayton NewellTjerk Timan, and BertJaap KoopsedsRoutledgeRoutledge Studies in Surveillance book series, 2018 

book chapters

Veenstra, A.F. van & Timan, T. (2022) ‘A Public Value Impact Assessment Framework for Digital Governance’. In Scientific Foundations of Digital Governance and Transformation. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-92945-9_8

Timan, T., van Oirsouw, C., & Hoekstra, M. (2021). ‘The Role of Data Regulation in Shaping AI: An Overview of Challenges and Recommendations for SMEs’. The Elements of Big Data Value, 355. Available at:

Timan, T., and Zoltan M. “Data Protection in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: Trends, Existing Solutions and Recommendations for Privacy-Preserving Technologies.” In The Elements of Big Data Value, pp. 153-175. Springer, Cham, 2021. DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-68176-0_7

Timan, T., van Veenstra, A. F., & Karanikolova, K. (2021). Measuring the Impact of the Once Only Principle for Businesses Across Borders. In The Once-Only Principle (pp. 208-224). Springer, Cham. Available at:

Bachlechner, D., Van Lieshout, M., & Timan, T. (2020). Privacy as enabler of innovation. Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy: 14th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.6/SIG 9.2. 2 International Summer School, Windisch, Switzerland, August 19–23, 2019, Revised Selected Papers 14, 3-16.

Ball, Webster & Timan (2018). Surveillance theory meets participatory theory. In Surveillance and Democracy in Europe (eds. Ball and Webster), Routledge Publishing.

Timan, T, Newell, B.C. and Koops, B.J. (2017). Introduction: Conceptual directions for thinking about privacy in public space. In Privacy in Public Spaces – conceptual and regulatory challenges (Timan, Newell, Koops eds), Edward Elgar Publishers

Timan, T.(2017). Privacy in public space. In Privacy in Public Spaces – conceptual and regulatory challenges (Timan, Newell, Koops eds), Edward Elgar Publishers. pp 269 – 290

Timan, T.(2017). Policy, design and use of police-worn bodycameras in the Netherlands. In Under Observation: The Interplay between eHealth and Surveillance: Springer Publishers, 2017, pp 139-162

Timan, T, Galič, M, & Bert-Jaap Koops (2017). Surveillance Theory and Its Implications for Law. The Oxford Handbook of the Law and Regulation of Technology. Editors: Brownsword, Eloise Scotford, and Karen Yeung, pp 731-753. DOI: 10.1007/s13347-016-0219-1 

book reviews

Timan, T. (2016). Review of Information Infrastructure(s): Boundaries, Ecologies, Multiplicity. Eds Giuseppina Pellegrino and Alessandro Mongili Review for the Technoscienza journal.

Timan, T. (2015). Review of The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences, Rob Kitchin. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics 11, issue 1


Georgieva, I. & Timan, T. (2020).When the gate-keepers become the troublemakers: How discourses through and about tools and capabilities shape international cyber norms” during the panel. In the track Digital transformation and cyber capacity building. Closing the Gap – International Conference on Cyber, Digital and Tech

Van Veenstra, A. F., Bodea, G., Timan, T., Misuraca, G., & van Noordt, C. (2020). ‘Assessment of the Use of Artificial Intelligence to Support Public Services: Methodology and Roadmap’. EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2020, 359.

Reid, L., and Timan, T. (2017) What are digital methods, where have they come from, and how/why are they important? Working Paper, Centre for Housing Research, University of St Andrews. Available at:

Timan, T & Ellsworth-Krebs, K.Going Digital: Attempting to Bring Digital Tools to the Study of Everyday Home Life. Everyday Futures Workshop. Institute for Social Futures: Lancaster

Verhagen . J. et. al. Designing values in an adaptive learning platform. ep4la2016 workshop (

Timan, T (2014). Bodycamera use in Dutch surveillance practices. In HUMAN FACTORS IN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT – XI NORDIC ERGONOMICS SOCIETY ANNUAL CONFERENCE – 46 . p 147 – 149

PhD thesis

Timan, T (2013). Changing landscapes of surveillance. Emerging technologies and participatory surveillance in Dutch nightscapes. Phd thesis University of Twente


Georgieva, I. Timan, T. & Hoekstra, M. (2022). Regulatory divergence and the AI act. Report for EP STOA in preparation for the parliament’s vote on high-risk systems in the AI Act. Panel for the Future of Science and Technology, EPRS, European Parliamentary Research Service Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA).

Bodea, G., Timan, T., Montalvo, C., Veenstra, A.F.. v. (2021) AI in the public sector – towards a methodology to assess social and economic impacts of artificial intelligence. Study for the European Commission/Joint Research Centre.

Stolwijk, C., Punter, M., Timan, T., Berkers, F., Georgieva, I., Gilsing, R., … & Joosten, R. (2022). Bridging the Dutch and European Digital Sovereignty gap. TNO position paper.

Timan, T. et al. (2021). ‘Artificial Intelligence and public services’ . AIDA committee, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. DOI:  10.2861/59813

Diran, D. et al. (2021). ‘Artificial Intelligence in smart cities and urban mobility’.AIDA committee, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. Available at:

Veenstra, van, A.F. et al. (2021) AI: In search of the human dimension. Involve citizens and experiment responsibly-Whitepaper. TNO position paper.

Yordanova, Katerina, Natalie Bertels, Freek Bomhof, Roberto Di Bernardo, Ana García Robles, Norbert Jastroch, Tjerk Timan, Mattia Trino, Ray Walshe, and Sonja Zillner. “Response to the European Commission’s proposal for AI Regulation.” (2021). BDVA position paper.

Van Noordt, C., Misuraca, G., Mortati, M., Rizzo, F. and Timan, T., AI Watch – Artificial Intelligence for the public sector – Report of the “1st Peer Learning Workshop on the use and impact of AI in public services”, Brussels 11-12 February 2020, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-19438-5, doi:10.2760/25756, JRC120315.

Timan, T., Snijders, R., Kirova, M., et al., Study on safety of non-embedded software : service, data access, and legal issues of advanced robots, autonomous, connected, and AI-based vehicles and systems : final study report regarding CAD/CCAM and industrial robots, Publications Office, 2019,

Škorvánek, Ivan, Bert-Jaap Koops, and Tjerk Timan. “Surveillance, Criminal Procedure, and Regulatory Connection: the Case of Sewage Monitoring.” Tilburg Law School Research Paper Forthcoming (2019).

Timan, T. & Karanikolova, K. (2018). TOOP Deliverable D 2.10: Ex Ante Impact Assessment Framework for TOOP (internal deliverable).

Timan et al. (2018). Opkomende technologie-en. Update van de technologie verkenning 2015 (in Dutch). Technology trend report for the Dutch ministry of Interior Affairs.

Wabeke,T., Klos,V., & Timan, T. (2018). “Trias Analytica” – how to conduct data science responsibly. TNO company whitepaper (in Dutch).

Kotterink, B & Timan, T. (2018). The impact of digitisation on social services – Report for Eurofound.

Van Veenstra, A.F., Timan, T., Vermeulen. P. (2018). TOOP Deliverable D 2.9: Impact Assessment Framework (internal deliverable)

Timan, T. & Kotterink, B. (2017). BDVE Deliverable D 2.2: The Free Flow of Data – A moving target (internal deliverable)

Timan, T & Niezen, M. (2016). Interim Report “Social-Ethical Implication of the MicroMole”.Internal Deliverable (confidential)

Timan, T & Udo, W. (2016). Workshop Report “Privacy and medical data” for the Human Brain Project. Commissioned by the Danish Board of Technology


Timan, T., and Grommé,  F. (2020). “Wat is rechtvaardige AI? Een kader voor het ontwikkelen en toepassen van algoritmes voor automatische besluitvorming.” Beleid en Maatschappij 47 (4): 425–38.

Timan, T. (2018). “Where and how to find data definitions”.

Timan, T & Koops, E.J. (2014). Sociale media en surveillance: over verschuivende rollen en vervagende grenzen. Strafblad p. 284 – 290. Sdu uitgevers

Timan, T (2014). Als de nacht valt(2); Bekijken & beken worden. Geografie 6. p. 18-20

Schwanen, T; van Aalst, I; van Liempt, I; Brands, J; Timan, T. (2011) Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes: presenting a research project. Derive: Zeitschrift fur Stadtforschung 44, pp. 18-22


Reviewer for “Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice”

Reviewer for the journal “Science and Engineering Ethics”

Reviewer for the journal “The Information Society”

Reviewer for the journal “Information, Communication and Society”.

Reviewer for the journal “Information Systems”.

Reviewer for the journal “ACM FAccT”.

Reviewer for “CPDP” conference.